In 1958 a mediastinal tumour was discovered in an asymptomatic woman with a history of vomiting and an oesophageal anomaly which had not been treated. A tumour of the anterosuperior mediastinum in relation to the aortic arch was extirpated and proved to be a chemodectoma or non-chromaffin paraganglioma. At subsequent follow-ups the mediastinum was never normal and the heart size progressively increased, the oesophageal anomaly remaining unchanged. A small opacity appeared in the left lung in 1974. An operation performed in 1975 revealed an osteochondroma in the lung, pericarditis, and an intrapericardial chemodectoma. The oesophagus was not explored. An intrathoracic chemodectoma is rare. The importance of angiography in its diagnosis is emphasised. Malignant degeneration is seldom observed. Therapy is surgical, the tumour being radioresistant. The possibility to be considered in our patient was either relapse of the tumour with degeneration or multiple localisations of the tumour.
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