A case of primary tuberculosis of the oesophagus is presented; the patient was successfully treated by oesophagectomy. The condition, being rare, has stimulated the authors to review the literature concerning primary and secondary oesophageal tuberculosis. The history, modes of infection, the pathology, clinical picture, diagnosis, investigations, and methods of treatment are discussed. In contradistinction to the secondary disease, which is terminal, primary tuberculosis of the oesophagus is a curable disease with a fairly good prognosis. The case report shows that the surgeon should pay careful attention to the site of the anastomosis; otherwise post-operative stricture can develop. Even this responds well to dilatations and the patient can regain normal health.
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