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Physical signs of diffuse airways obstruction and lung distension
  1. E. J. M. Campbell
  1. Royal Postgraduate Medical School, and Hammersmith Hospital, London, W. 1


    The following are physical signs which can be elicited in patients with chronic airways obstruction: a reduction in the length of the trachea palpable above the sternal notch; tracheal descent with inspiration; excessive use of the scalene and sternomastoid muscles; excavation of the suprasternal and supraclavicular fossae during inspiration; jugular venous filling during expiration; loss of bucket-handle movement of the upper ribs; paradoxical movement of the lower ribs; and prolonged forced expiratory time.

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